Journal cover Journal topic
Earth System Dynamics An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
Journal topic

Journal metrics

Journal metrics

  • IF value: 4.351 IF 4.351
  • IF 5-year value: 5.124 IF 5-year
  • CiteScore value: 4.44 CiteScore
  • SNIP value: 1.250 SNIP 1.250
  • IPP value: 4.10 IPP 4.10
  • SJR value: 2.203 SJR 2.203
  • Scimago H <br class='hide-on-tablet hide-on-mobile'>index value: 29 Scimago H
    index 29
  • h5-index value: 31 h5-index 31
Discussion papers
© Author(s) 2020. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
© Author(s) 2020. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Submitted as: research article 06 Mar 2020

Submitted as: research article | 06 Mar 2020

Review status
This preprint is currently under review for the journal ESD.

Multivariate bias corrections of climate simulations: Which benefits for which losses?

Bastien François1, Mathieu Vrac1, Alex J. Cannon2, Yoann Robin3, and Denis Allard4 Bastien François et al.
  • 1Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et l’Environnement (LSCE-IPSL) CNRS/CEA/UVSQ, UMR8212, Université Paris-Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette, France
  • 2Climate Research Division, Environment and Climate Change Canada, Victoria, BC, Canada
  • 3Centre National de Recherches Météorologiques, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, Météo-France, Toulouse, France
  • 4INRAE, BioSP, 84914, Avignon, France

Abstract. Climate models are the major tools to estimate climate variables evolutions in the future. However, climate simulations often present statistical biases and have to be corrected against observations before being used in impact assessments. Several bias correction (BC) methods have therefore been developed in the literature over the last two decades, in order to adjust simulations according to historical records and obtain climate projections with appropriate statistical attributes. Most of the existing and popular BC methods are univariate, i.e., correcting one physical variable and one location at a time, and thus can fail to reconstruct inter-variable, spatial or temporal dependencies of the observations. These remaining biases in the correction can then affect the subsequent analyses. This has led to further research on multivariate aspects for statistical post-processing BC methods. Recently, some multivariate bias correction (MBC) methods have been proposed, with different approaches to restore multidimensional dependencies. However, these methods are not well apprehended yet by researchers and practitioners due to differences in their applicability and assumptions, therefore leading potentially to different results. This study is intended to intercompare four existing MBCs to provide end-users with aid in choosing such methods for their applications. For evaluation and illustration purposes, these methods are applied to correct simulation outputs from one climate model through a cross-validation methodology, which allows for the assessment of inter-variable, spatial and temporal criteria. Then, a second methodology is performed for assessing the ability of the MBC methods to account for the multi-dimensional evolutions of the climate model. Additionally, two reference datasets are used to assess the influence of their spatial resolution on (M)BC results. Most of the methods reasonably correct inter-variable and inter-site correlations. However, none of them adjust correctly the temporal structure as they generate bias corrected data with usually weak temporal dependencies compared to observations. Major differences are found concerning the applicability and stability of the methods in high-dimensional contexts, and in their capability to reproduce the multi-dimensional changes of the model. Based on these conclusions, perspectives for MBC developments are suggested, such as methods to adjust not only multivariate correlations but also temporal structures and allowing to account for multi-dimensional evolutions of the model in the correction.

Bastien François et al.

Interactive discussion

Status: open (until 18 Apr 2020)
Status: open (until 18 Apr 2020)
AC: Author comment | RC: Referee comment | SC: Short comment | EC: Editor comment
[Subscribe to comment alert] Printer-friendly Version - Printer-friendly version Supplement - Supplement

Bastien François et al.

Bastien François et al.


Total article views: 216 (including HTML, PDF, and XML)
HTML PDF XML Total Supplement BibTeX EndNote
163 50 3 216 11 1 2
  • HTML: 163
  • PDF: 50
  • XML: 3
  • Total: 216
  • Supplement: 11
  • BibTeX: 1
  • EndNote: 2
Views and downloads (calculated since 06 Mar 2020)
Cumulative views and downloads (calculated since 06 Mar 2020)

Viewed (geographical distribution)

Total article views: 117 (including HTML, PDF, and XML) Thereof 115 with geography defined and 2 with unknown origin.
Country # Views %
  • 1



No saved metrics found.


No discussed metrics found.
Latest update: 31 Mar 2020
Publications Copernicus
Short summary
Recently, multivariate bias correction (MBC) methods designed to adjust climate simulations have been proposed. However, they use different approaches, leading potentially to different results. Therefore, this study intends to intercompare four existing MBC methods to provide end-users with aid in choosing such methods for their applications. To do so, a wide range of evaluation criteria have been used to assess the ability of MBC methods to correct statistical properties of climate models.
Recently, multivariate bias correction (MBC) methods designed to adjust climate simulations have...