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Earth System Dynamics An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
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Discussion papers
https://doi.org/10.5194/esd-2019-21
© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
https://doi.org/10.5194/esd-2019-21
© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Research article 23 May 2019

Research article | 23 May 2019

Review status
This discussion paper is a preprint. It is a manuscript under review for the journal Earth System Dynamics (ESD).

Climate System Response to Stratospheric Sulfate Aerosols: Sensitivity to Altitude of Aerosol Layer

Krishnamohan Krishna-Pillai Sukumara-Pillai1, Govindasamy Bala1, Long Cao2, Lei Duan2,3, and Ken Caldeira3 Krishnamohan Krishna-Pillai Sukumara-Pillai et al.
  • 1Centre for Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012, India
  • 2Department of Earth Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310027, China
  • 3Department of Global Ecology, Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford, CA 94305, USA

Abstract. Reduction of surface temperatures of the planet by injecting sulfate aerosols in the stratosphere has been suggested as an option to reduce the amount of human-induced climate warming. Several previous studies have shown that for a specified amount of injection, aerosols injected at a higher altitude in the stratosphere would produce more cooling because aerosol sedimentation would take longer time. In this study, we isolate and assess the sensitivity to the altitude of the aerosol layer of stratospheric aerosol radiative forcing and the resulting climate change. We study this by prescribing a specified amount of sulfate aerosols, of a size typical of what is produced by volcanoes, distributed uniformly at different levels in the stratosphere. We find that stratospheric sulfate aerosols are more effective in cooling climate when they reside higher in the stratosphere. We explain this sensitivity in terms of effective radiative forcing: volcanic aerosols heat the stratospheric layers where they reside, altering stratospheric water vapor content, tropospheric stability and clouds, and consequently the effective radiative forcing. We show that the magnitude of the effective radiative forcing is larger when aerosols are prescribed at higher altitudes and the differences in radiative forcing due to fast adjustment processes can account for a substantial part of the dependence of amount of cooling on aerosol altitude. These altitude effects would be additional to dependences on aerosol microphysics, transport, and sedimentation, which are outside the scope of this study. The cooling effectiveness of stratospheric sulfate aerosols likely increases with altitude of the aerosol layer both because aerosols higher in the stratosphere have larger effective radiative forcing and because they have a longer stratospheric residence time; these two effects are likely to be of comparable importance.

Krishnamohan Krishna-Pillai Sukumara-Pillai et al.
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Krishnamohan Krishna-Pillai Sukumara-Pillai et al.
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Short summary
We find that sulfate aerosols are more effective in cooling the climate system when they reside higher in the stratosphere. We explain this sensitivity in terms of radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere. Sulfate aerosols heat the stratospheric layers, causing an increase in stratospheric water vapor content and a reduction in high clouds. These changes are larger when aerosols are prescribed near the tropopause, offsetting part of the aerosol-induced negative radiative forcing/cooling.
We find that sulfate aerosols are more effective in cooling the climate system when they reside...
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