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Discussion papers | Copyright
https://doi.org/10.5194/esd-2018-31
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Research article 06 Jun 2018

Research article | 06 Jun 2018

Review status
This discussion paper is a preprint. A revision of the manuscript is under review for the journal Earth System Dynamics (ESD).

The climate of a retrograde rotating earth

Uwe Mikolajewicz1, Florian Ziemen1, Guido Cioni1,2, Martin Claussen1,3, Klaus Fraedrich1,3, Marvin Heidkamp1,2, Cathy Hohenegger1, Diego Jimenez de la Cuesta1,2, Marie-Luise Kapsch1, Alexander Lemburg1,2, Thorsten Mauritsen1, Katharina Meraner1, Niklas Röber4, Hauke Schmidt1, Katharina D. Six1, Irene Stemmler1, Talia Tamarin-Brodsky5, Alexander Winkler1,2, Xiuhua Zhu3, and Bjorn Stevens1 Uwe Mikolajewicz et al.
  • 1Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Bundesstr. 53, 20146 Hamburg, Germany
  • 2International Max Planck Research School on Earth System Modeling, Bundesstr. 53, 20146 Hamburg, Germany
  • 3Universität Hamburg, Meteorologisches Insitut, Bundesstr. 55, 20146 Hamburg, Germany
  • 4Deutsches Klimarechenzentrum, Bundesstr. 45a, 20146 Hamburg, Germany
  • 5Department of Meteorology, University of Reading, UK

Abstract. To enhance the understanding of our Earth system numerical experiments are performed contrasting a retrograde and prograde rotating Earth using the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model. The experiments show that the sense of rotation has relatively little impact on the globally and zonally averaged energy budgets, but leads to large shifts in continental climates, patterns of precipitation, and the structure of the ocean overturning circulation.

Most changes in the continental climate are expected, given ideas developed more than a hundred years ago: A general switch in the nature of the Euro-African climate with that of the Americas due to the reversal of the wind systems and the associated changes in storm tracks. However, the shift of storm track activity from the oceans to the land in the Northern hemisphere is surprising. Different patterns of storms influence fresh water transport, which may underpin the change of the role of the North Atlantic and the Pacific in terms of deep water formation, overturning and northward oceanic heat transport. These changes greatly influence northern hemispheric climate and atmospheric heat transport by eddies in ways that appear energetically consistent with a southward shift of the zonally and annually averaged tropical rain bands. Differences between the zonally averaged energy budget and the rain band shifts leave the door open, however, for an important role for stationary eddies in determining the position of tropical rains. Changes in ocean biogeochemistry largely follow shifts in ocean circulation, but the emergence of a super oxygen minimum zone in the Indian Ocean is surprising. The upwelling of phosphate enriched and nitrate depleted water provoke a dominance of cyanobacteria over bulk phytoplankton over vast areas, a phenomenon not observed in the prograde model.

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Uwe Mikolajewicz et al.
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Wind 2h N. Röber, U. Mikolajewicz, F. Ziemen, G. Cioni, M. Claussen, K. Fraedrich, M. Heidkamp, C. Hohenegger, G. Jimenez de la Cuesta, M.-L. Kapsch, A. Lemburg, T. Mauritsen, K. Meraner, H. Schmidt, K. D. Six, I. Stemmler, T. Tamarin-Brodsky, A. Winkler, X. Zhu, and B. Stevens https://doi.org/10.5446/36561

Surface temperature monthly N. Röber, U. Mikolajewicz, F. Ziemen, G. Cioni, M. Claussen, K. Fraedrich, M. Heidkamp, C. Hohenegger, G. Jimenez de la Cuesta, M.-L. Kapsch, A. Lemburg, T. Mauritsen, K. Meraner, H. Schmidt, K. D. Six, I. Stemmler, T. Tamarin-Brodsky, A. Winkler, X. Zhu, and B. Stevens https://doi.org/10.5446/36560

Surface temperature 2h N. Röber, U. Mikolajewicz, F. Ziemen, G. Cioni, M. Claussen, K. Fraedrich, M. Heidkamp, C. Hohenegger, G. Jimenez de la Cuesta, M.-L. Kapsch, A. Lemburg, T. Mauritsen, K. Meraner, H. Schmidt, K. D. Six, I. Stemmler, T. Tamarin-Brodsky, A. Winkler, X. Zhu, and B. Stevens https://doi.org/10.5446/36559

Sea surface salinity monthly N. Röber, U. Mikolajewicz, F. Ziemen, G. Cioni, M. Claussen, K. Fraedrich, M. Heidkamp, C. Hohenegger, G. Jimenez de la Cuesta, M.-L. Kapsch, A. Lemburg, T. Mauritsen, K. Meraner, H. Schmidt, K. D. Six, I. Stemmler, T. Tamarin-Brodsky, A. Winkler, X. Zhu, and B. Stevens https://doi.org/10.5446/36558

Sea ice monthly N. Röber, U. Mikolajewicz, F. Ziemen, G. Cioni, M. Claussen, K. Fraedrich, M. Heidkamp, C. Hohenegger, G. Jimenez de la Cuesta, M.-L. Kapsch, A. Lemburg, T. Mauritsen, K. Meraner, H. Schmidt, K. D. Six, I. Stemmler, T. Tamarin-Brodsky, A. Winkler, X. Zhu, and B. Stevens https://doi.org/10.5446/36557

Precipitation monthly N. Röber, U. Mikolajewicz, F. Ziemen, G. Cioni, M. Claussen, K. Fraedrich, M. Heidkamp, C. Hohenegger, G. Jimenez de la Cuesta, M.-L. Kapsch, A. Lemburg, T. Mauritsen, K. Meraner, H. Schmidt, K. D. Six, I. Stemmler, T. Tamarin-Brodsky, A. Winkler, X. Zhu, and B. Stevens https://doi.org/10.5446/36556

Precipitation 2h N. Röber, U. Mikolajewicz, F. Ziemen, G. Cioni, M. Claussen, K. Fraedrich, M. Heidkamp, C. Hohenegger, G. Jimenez de la Cuesta, M.-L. Kapsch, A. Lemburg, T. Mauritsen, K. Meraner, H. Schmidt, K. D. Six, I. Stemmler, T. Tamarin-Brodsky, A. Winkler, X. Zhu, and B. Stevens https://doi.org/10.5446/36555

Nstar 3d monthly N. Röber, U. Mikolajewicz, F. Ziemen, G. Cioni, M. Claussen, K. Fraedrich, M. Heidkamp, C. Hohenegger, G. Jimenez de la Cuesta, M.-L. Kapsch, A. Lemburg, T. Mauritsen, K. Meraner, H. Schmidt, K. D. Six, I. Stemmler, T. Tamarin-Brodsky, A. Winkler, X. Zhu, and B. Stevens https://doi.org/10.5446/36554

Leaf area index monthly N. Röber, U. Mikolajewicz, F. Ziemen, G. Cioni, M. Claussen, K. Fraedrich, M. Heidkamp, C. Hohenegger, G. Jimenez de la Cuesta, M.-L. Kapsch, A. Lemburg, T. Mauritsen, K. Meraner, H. Schmidt, K. D. Six, I. Stemmler, T. Tamarin-Brodsky, A. Winkler, X. Zhu, and B. Stevens https://doi.org/10.5446/36553

Dissolved oxygen content 3d monthly N. Röber, U. Mikolajewicz, F. Ziemen, G. Cioni, M. Claussen, K. Fraedrich, M. Heidkamp, C. Hohenegger, G. Jimenez de la Cuesta, M.-L. Kapsch, A. Lemburg, T. Mauritsen, K. Meraner, H. Schmidt, K. D. Six, I. Stemmler, T. Tamarin-Brodsky, A. Winkler, X. Zhu, and B. Stevens https://doi.org/10.5446/36552

Current speed 3d monthly N. Röber, U. Mikolajewicz, F. Ziemen, G. Cioni, M. Claussen, K. Fraedrich, M. Heidkamp, C. Hohenegger, G. Jimenez de la Cuesta, M.-L. Kapsch, A. Lemburg, T. Mauritsen, K. Meraner, H. Schmidt, K. D. Six, I. Stemmler, T. Tamarin-Brodsky, A. Winkler, X. Zhu, and B. Stevens https://doi.org/10.5446/36551

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Short summary
Model experiments show that changing the sense of Earth's rotation has relatively little impact on the globally and zonally averaged energy budgets, but leads to large shifts in continental climates and patterns of precipitation. The retrograde world is greener as the desert area shrinks. Deep water formation shifts from the North Atlantic to the North Pacific with subsequent changes in ocean overturning. Over large areas of the Indian ocean cyano bacteria dominate over bulk phytoplancton.
Model experiments show that changing the sense of Earth's rotation has relatively little impact...
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