Journal cover Journal topic
Earth System Dynamics An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union

Journal metrics

  • IF value: 3.635 IF 3.635
  • IF 5-year<br/> value: 3.869 IF 5-year
  • CiteScore<br/> value: 4.15 CiteScore
  • SNIP value: 0.995 SNIP 0.995
  • SJR value: 2.742 SJR 2.742
  • IPP value: 3.679 IPP 3.679
  • h5-index value: 21 h5-index 21
© Author(s) 2011. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Research article
03 Mar 2011
Review status
This discussion paper has been under review for the journal Earth System Dynamics (ESD). The revised manuscript was not accepted.
Geologic constraints on earth system sensitivity to CO2 during the Cretaceous and early Paleogene
D. L. Royer1, M. Pagani2, and D. J. Beerling3 1Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences and College of the Environment, Wesleyan University, Middletown, Connecticut, 06459, USA
2Department of Geology and Geophysics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, 06520, USA
3Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, S10 2TN, UK
Abstract. Earth system sensitivity (ESS) is the long-term (>103 yr) equilibrium temperature response to doubled CO2. ESS has climate policy implications because global temperatures are not expected to decline appreciably for at least 103 yr, even if anthropogenic greenhouse-gas emissions drop to zero. We report quantitative ESS estimates of 3 °C or higher for much of the Cretaceous and early Paleogene based on paleo-reconstructions of CO2 and temperature. These estimates are generally higher than climate sensitivities simulated from global climate models for the same ancient periods (~3 °C). We conclude that climate models do not capture the full suite of positive climate feedbacks during greenhouse worlds. These absent feedbacks are probably related to clouds, trace greenhouse gases, seasonal snow cover, and/or vegetation, especially in polar regions. Continued warming in the coming decades as anthropogenic greenhouse gases accumulate in the atmosphere ensures that characterizing and quantifying these positive climate feedbacks will become a scientific challenge of increasing priority.

Citation: Royer, D. L., Pagani, M., and Beerling, D. J.: Geologic constraints on earth system sensitivity to CO2 during the Cretaceous and early Paleogene, Earth Syst. Dynam. Discuss., 2, 211-240,, 2011.
D. L. Royer et al.
D. L. Royer et al.


Total article views: 1,090 (including HTML, PDF, and XML)

HTML PDF XML Total BibTeX EndNote
432 607 51 1,090 32 32

Views and downloads (calculated since 01 Feb 2013)

Cumulative views and downloads (calculated since 01 Feb 2013)



Latest update: 16 Aug 2017
Publications Copernicus