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https://doi.org/10.5194/esd-2017-33
© Author(s) 2017. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Research article
02 May 2017
Review status
This discussion paper is under review for the journal Earth System Dynamics (ESD).
The Potential of using Remote Sensing data to estimate Air–Sea CO2 exchange in the Baltic Sea
Gaëlle Parard1,3, Anna Rutgersson1, Sindu Raj Parampil1, and Anastase Alexandre Charantonis2 1Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden
2École nationale supérieure d'informatique pour l'industrie et l'entreprise, Evry, France
3AGO-GHER-MARE, University of Liège, Allée du Six Aout, 17, Sart Tilman, Liège 4000, Belgium
Abstract. In this article, we present the first climatological map of air–sea CO2 flux over the Baltic Sea, based on remote-sensing data: satellite imaging derived estimates of pCO2 and remotesensed wind estimates. The pCO2 estimates estimated using self-organizing maps classifications along with class-specific linear regressions (SOMLO methodology). The estimates have a spatial resolution of 4-km both in latitude and longitude and a monthly temporal resolution from 1998 to 2011. The CO2 fluxes are estimated using two types of wind products, i.e. reanalysis winds and satellite wind products, the higher-resolution wind product generally leading to higher-amplitude fluxes estimations. Furthermore, the CO2 fluxes were also estimated using two methods: the method of Wanninkhof et al. (2012) and the method of Rutgersson et al. (2010), i.e. reanalysis winds and satellite wind products, the higher-resolution wind product generally resulting in higheramplitude fluxes. The seasonal variation in fluxes reflects the seasonal variation in pCO2 and stays similar throughout the Baltic Sea, with high CO2 emissions in winter and high CO2 uptake in summer. All basins act as a source for the atmosphere, with a higher degree of emission in the southern regions (mean source of 1.6 mmol m−2 d1 for the South Basin and 0.9 for the Central Basin) than in the northern regions (mean source of 0.1 mmol m−2 d−1 and the coastal areas act as a larger sink (annual uptake of −4.2 mmol m−2 d−1 than does the open sea (−4 mmol m−2 d−1). In this study, we find that the Baltic Sea acts as a small source of 1.2 mmol m−2 d−1 on average and that annual uptake has increased from 1998 to 2012.

Citation: Parard, G., Rutgersson, A., Raj Parampil, S., and Charantonis, A. A.: The Potential of using Remote Sensing data to estimate Air–Sea CO2 exchange in the Baltic Sea, Earth Syst. Dynam. Discuss., https://doi.org/10.5194/esd-2017-33, in review, 2017.
Gaëlle Parard et al.
Gaëlle Parard et al.
Gaëlle Parard et al.

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Short summary
Coastal environments and shelf sea represent 7.6 % of the total oceanic surface area they are, however, biogeochemically more dynamic, and probably more vulnerable to climate change than the open ocean. Whatever the responses of the open ocean to climate change, they will propagate to the coastal ocean. We used the self-organizing multiple linear output (SOMLO) method to estimate the ocean surface pCO2 in the Baltic Sea from the remotely sensed measurements and we estimates the air-sea CO2 flux.
Coastal environments and shelf sea represent 7.6 % of the total oceanic surface area they are,...
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