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Earth System Dynamics An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union

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doi:10.5194/esd-2016-46
© Author(s) 2016. This work is distributed
under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Research article
25 Oct 2016
Review status
This discussion paper is under review for the journal Earth System Dynamics (ESD).
Temporal and Spatial variation of Contribution from Ship Emissions to the concentration and deposition of air pollutants in the Baltic Sea
Karin Haglund, Björn Claremar, and Anna Rutgersson Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, 75236, Sweden
Abstract. The shipping sector contributes significantly to increasing emissions of air pollutants. In order to achieve sustainable shipping, primarily through new regulations and techniques, greater knowledge of dispersion and deposition of air pollutants is required. Regional model calculations of the dispersion and deposition of sulphur, nitrogen and particulate matter from the international maritime sector in the Baltic Sea and the North Sea have been made for the years 2009 to 2013. In some areas in the Baltic Sea region the contribution of sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxide and nitrogen dioxide from international shipping represented up to 80 % of the total near surface concentration of the pollutants. Contributions from shipping of PM2,5 and PM10 were calculated to a maximum of 21 % and 13 % respectively. The contribution of wet deposition of sulphur from shipping was maximum 29 % of the total wet deposition, and for dry deposition the contribution from shipping was maximum 84 %. The highest percentage contribution of wet deposition of nitrogen from shipping reached 28 % and for dry deposition 47 %. The highest concentrations and deposition of the pollutants in the study were found near large ports and shipping lanes. High concentrations were also found over larger areas at sea and over land where many people are exposed. With enhanced regulations for sulphur content in maritime fuel, the cleaning of exhausts through scrubbers has become a possible economic solution. Wet scrubbers meet the air quality criteria but their consequences for the marine environment are largely unknown. The resulting potential of future acidification in the Baltic Sea, both from atmospheric deposition and from open-loop scrubber water along the shipping lanes, based on different assumptions about sulphur content in fuel and scrubber usage has been assessed. Shipping is expected to increase globally and in the Baltic Sea region, deposition of sulphur due to shipping will depend on traffic density, emission regulations and technology choices for the emission controls. To evaluate future changes scenarios are developed considering the amount of scrubber technology used. The increase in deposition for the different scenarios differs slightly for the basins in the Baltic Sea. The proportion of ocean acidifying sulphur from ships increases when taking scrubber water into account and the major reason to increasing acidifying nitrogen from ships are due to increasing ship traffic. This study also generates a database of scenarios for atmospheric deposition and scrubber exhaust from the period 2011 to 2050.

Citation: Haglund, K., Claremar, B., and Rutgersson, A.: Temporal and Spatial variation of Contribution from Ship Emissions to the concentration and deposition of air pollutants in the Baltic Sea, Earth Syst. Dynam. Discuss., doi:10.5194/esd-2016-46, in review, 2016.
Karin Haglund et al.
Karin Haglund et al.
Karin Haglund et al.

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Short summary
Shipping is the most cost-effective option for global transport of goods, and over 90 % of the world trade is carried by sea. The shipping sector, however, contributes to emissions of pollutants into the air and water. Estimates of deposition and near surface concentrations in the Baltic Sea region of sulfur, nitrogen and particulate matter originating from shipping have been developed for present conditions concerning traffic intensity and fuel as well as for future scenarios until 2050.
Shipping is the most cost-effective option for global transport of goods, and over 90 % of the...
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